Winter semester 2009/10

Master's Program in Cognitive Science, Comenius University, Bratislava


Lecturer: Mgr. Dana Retová., Centre for Cognitive Science, Dept. of Applied Informatics, room I-11, dana.retova@ii.fmph.uniba.sk
Time/Place: Tue., 14:00, 3 hours weekly
Credits: 5

Indicative Content

Cognitive Science is a new interdsciplinary field focusing on the study of mind and intelligent behavior. Its roots are in psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, antropology and philosophy. The goal of this course is to provide the students with an overview of theories, methods and topics of cognitive science: representational paradigms, perception, memory, learning and reasoning, language and communication, emotional, embodied and collective cognition. Examples of computational models of the studied cognitive phenomena will be presented.

Assessment

  1. [#rj Reflective journal & Readings] 40%
  2. [#op Oral presentation (peer lecture)] 40%
  3. [#rdfc Group work & Colloquium] 20%


Schedule

(The list of readings and other resources will be updated on the way.)

Session

Date

Topic

Presented by
(L = Lecturer,

S = Students)

Readings

1.

22.9

Introduction;

Resources, Methods, Sciences and

History of Cognitive Science

L

Session 1

2.

29.9

(13:00

-18:00)

experimental group work

assoc. prof.

Markus Peschl

from Vienna Univ.

-

3.

6.10

Cognitive phenomena: empirical research

(Memory, Learning, Reasoning)

L

Session 3



4.

13.10

Cognitive Science Paradigms:

Classical (computationalism)

Concepts to be worked on:

  • symbolic representation of the world
  • symbol grounding
  • syntax, semantics,
  • Physical Symbol Systems Hypothesis (PSSH)
  • algorithm,
  • computation + Turing machine,
  • Chinese Room argument

S:

   *  Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C., 1999. Understanding Intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Chap. 2, 3.
   * Paul Thagart: Úvod do kognitivní vědy. Portál, Praha 2001, preklad Anton Markoš, orig. MIT Press 1996, chap. 1.
   * Turing, A. M., 1950. Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind 59, 433–460.
   * Searle, J. R., 1980. Minds, brains, and programs. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 3, 417–457.
   * Newell, A., Simon, H. A., 1976. Computer science as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search. Commun. ACM 19 (3), 113–126.
   * Harnad, S. (1990) The Symbol Grounding Problem. Physica D 42: 335-346.

Supplementary readings:

  • Šefránek, J., Takáč, M., Farkaš, I.: Vznik inteligencie v umelých systémoch. In: Magdolen, D. (ed.): Hmota, život, inteligencia: Vznik. VEDA, Bratislava, in press.

5.

20.10

Cognitive Science Paradigms:

Connectionism & Neural Computation

Concepts to be worked on:

  • symbolic versus subsymbolic representation
  • distributed representation
  • gradedness
  • graceful degradation
  • robustness
  • feedback
  • neural architecture & knowledge

S:

   *  Kvasnička, V., Pospíchal, J., 2002. Konekcionizmus a modelovanie kognitívnych procesov [Connectionism and modeling of cognitive processes]. In: Rybár, J., Beňušková, L., Kvasnička, V. (Eds.), Kognitívne vedy. Kalligram, Bratislava, pp. 257–345.
   * I. Farkaš: Konekcionistické modelovanie jazyka. Chapter in book: J. Rybar, V. Kvasnicka, I. Farkas (Eds.), Jazyk a kognícia, Kalligram, Bratislava, pp. 262-305, 2005.
   * Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C., 1999. Understanding Intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Chap. 5.
   * Fodor J. A. and Pylyshyn Z. W.: Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture: A Critical Analysis. In: Connections and symbols. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 3–71. 1988.

Supplementary reading:

   *  Rogers, T. T., McClelland, J. L., 2004. Semantic Cognition: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
   * Kvasnička V. a kol.: Úvod do teórie neurónových sietí, IRIS Bratislava, 1997.
   * Sinčák P., Andrejková G. Neuronove siete I , Neuronove siete II. Elfa: Kosice, 1996. ( pdf.zip )
   * Beňušková L. Umele neuronove siete . Kapitola z Navrat P. et al. Umela inteligencia. STU: Bratislava, 2002, str. 161-189

6.

27.10

Cognitive Science Paradigms:

Embodiment & Situated Cognition

Concepts to be worked on:

  • embodied representation
  • image schemas & metaphors
  • emotional mind
  • subsumption architecture
  • intelligence without representation
  • Umwelt

S:

   *  Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C., 1999. Understanding Intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Chap. 4., 7.
   * Brooks, R.A. (1991). Intelligence without representation. Artificial Intelligence 47, 139–159.
   * Rambusch, J. & Ziemke T. (2005). The role of embodiment in situated learning. In:  Bara, B.G., Barsalou, L., and Bucciarelli, M. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1803-1808. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Supplementary reading:

   *  Lakoff, G.: Ženy, oheň a nebezpečné věci. TRIÁDA, 2006.
   * Lakoff, G., Johnson, M., 1980. Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
   * Gibbs, R. W., 2006. Embodiment and Cognitive Science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
   * Pecher, D., Zwaan, R. A. (Eds.), 2005. Grounding Cognition: The Role of Perception and Action in Memory, Language, and Thinking. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K.
   * CogSci seminar 2007: Embodiment and Cognitive Science
   * CogSci seminar 2005: Neural Theory of Language
   * Neural Basis of Language 2004, ICSI U Berkeley (lokálna kópia)
   * Architektúra microPsi - Artificial Emotion Project
   * Doerner, D: A Simulation of Cognitive and Emotional Effects of Overcrowding

7.

3.11

Cognitive Science Paradigms:

Dynamical Systems, Collective Cognition

Concepts to be worked on:

  • dynamical system
  • state space
  • attractor
  • emergence
  • adaptation
  • self organisation
  • interaction / coupling
  • Agent
  • multi-agent system
  • cultural cognition
  • enactment
  • Artificial Life

S:

   *  Pfeifer, R., Scheier, C., 1999. Understanding Intelligence. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Chap. 8, 9.
   * Gelder, T. J., 1999. Dynamic approaches to cognition. In: Wilson, R. A., Keil, F. C. (Eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. MIT
     Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 244–246.
   * Burian, J.: Kognice a informace In: Kvasnička V., Kelemen J., (eds.). Kognice a umělý život V. Slezská univerzita. Opava
   * Dynamical approaches to cognitive science, by Randall Beer.

Supplementary reading:

8.

10.11

Computational Modeling of Cognitive Phenomena

L

   *  Perfors, A.: Simulated Evolution of Language: a Review of the Field, in Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation vol. 5, no. 2, 2002.
   * Takáč, M.: Modelovanie kultúrneho prenosu a jeho úloha v evolúcii jazyka, in Rybár J. a kol. (eds.): Jazyk a kognícia, Kalligram Bratislava, 2005.

-

17.11

no lesson!


9.

24.11

Language and Communication: Evolutionary View

L

   *  Gärdenfors, P.: Cued and detached representations in animal cognition", Behavioural Processes 36, 1996, pp. 263-273.
   * Gärdenfors, P.:  "Language and the evolution of cognition", in Penser l'esprit: Des sciences de la cognition à une philosophie cognitive, ed. by V. Rialle and D. Fisette, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, Grenoble, 1996, pp. 151-172.
   * Kováč, L: Komentovaný Úvod do kognitívnej biológie. In: Kelemen, J., Kvasnička, V., Pospíchal, J. (Eds.) Kognice a umělý život IV. Slezská univerzita, Opava, pp. 233-258, 2004.
   * Kováč, L: Ľudské vedomie je produktom evolučnej eskalácie emocionálneho výberu. In: (Kelemen, J., Ed.) Kognice a umělý život. III. Slezská univerzita, Opava, pp. 75-93, 2003.

Supplementary reading:

   *  Hurford, J.: The evolution of language and languages. In: The Evolution of Culture edited by Robin Dunbar, Chris Knight and Camilla Power, 1999, Edinburgh University Press. p.173-193
   * Takáč, M.: Construction of Meanings in Living and Artificial Agents. dissertation thesis, Comenius University, Bratislava, submitted in August 2007, Chap. 3.
   * Kováč, L: Fundamental principles of cognitive biology. Evolution and Cognition 6, 51-69, 2000.
   * Kováč, L: Princípy molekulárnej kognície. In: Kelemen, J., Kvasnicka, V. (eds.) Kognice a umelý život VI. Slezská univerzita, Opava, pp. 215-222, 2006.
   * Kováč, L: Metafora evolučných krosien: kto je tkáč a čo tká? In: Kelemen, J., Kvasnička, V., Pospíchal, J. (Eds.) Kognice a umělý život. Slezská univerzita, Opava, pp. 131-140, 2001.
   * Csonto, J: Artificial Life (in Czech). In: Artificial Intelligence 3. ( Marik, V. ed.), Academia,  Praha. 2001.
   * Csonto, J.-Palko, M.: Umelý život. ELFA, Košice 2002. 180 s.
   * CogSci seminar 2002: Komunikácia

10.

1.12

Language: Phonology, Syntax,

Semantics, Pragmatics, Semiotics

L

   *  Kováč, L. Ľudstvo v ohrození: potreba syntézy prírodných a kultúrnych vied. In: Beňušková, Ľ., Kvasnička, V., Pospíchal, J. (Eds.) Hľadanie spoločného jazyka v kognitívnych vedách. Iris 2000, pp. 83-120
   * Burian, J.: Etika umělého vědomí In: Sinčák P., Kvasnička V., Pospíchal J., Kelemen J., Návrat P. (ed.). Kognice a umělý život III. Košice: Elfa, 2003.
   * Kurzweil, R.: Vek duševných strojov, keď počítače prevýšia ľudskú inteligenciu.
   * Denisa Kera: Mezi evolucí a apokalypsou - Transhumanismus

Supplementary reading:

  • Will Machines Become Conscious?
  • Kubrick 2001: The Space Odyssey explained

11.

8.12

Closing colloquium:

Future and Ethical Aspects of

Cognitive Science and

AI Research

Session 11

-

17.12

Informal meeting with Vienna MEiCogSci students + Christmas market in downtown

(voluntary)

==

Other resources:

  • Basic Concepts of Cognitive Science I. - parallel lecture of MEiCogSci program at Vienna Univ.
  • Wilson, R., Keil, F. (eds): The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press 1999.
  • Johnson-Laird, P.: The Computer and the Mind, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.
  • Rybár J. a kol. (eds.): Jazyk a kognícia, Kalligram Bratislava, 2005.
  • Rybár J. a kol. (eds.): Kognitívne vedy, Kalligram Bratislava, 2002.
  • Beňušková L. a kol. (eds.): Hľadanie spoločného jazyka v kognitívnych vedách, IRIS Bratislava, 2000.
  • Gál E., Kelemen J. (eds.): Myseľ, telo, stroj, BRADLO Bratislava, 1992.


Assessment details

Readings

Before each session, a student should carefully read at least one article from the related group of readings under the title READINGS (optional supplementary readings are below in SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS) and make up at least one question or a discussion point related to the chosen article. The discussion points should be posted under the corresponding thread (e.g. Session 2 - Readings) 'before the respective session'. If you are the first person to post the discussion point to a topic, please identify the topic you are reacting to in the subject of the thread (e.g. Session 2 - Journal).

Reflective Journal

The reflections will serve the lecturer as a feedback of students' understanding, as well as a platform for discussions among students themselves. Also, they will train the students in formulating and expressing their critical views on scientific content supported by relevant arguments.
The students are supposed to send their written reflections upon each week's topic (either a lecture or a presentation) by posting in on the forum under the corresponding thread.
Each reflection should be sent not later than one week after the lecture (i.e. by the next week session). If you are the first person to post the discussion point, please identify the lecture you are reacting to in the subject of the thread (e.g. Session 2 - Journal).
The reflection should include personal views, reactions to reading-related discussion points raised by colleagues, critical attitude and feedback to the content. It can roughly follow the scheme:

  1. How do I assess the quality of the lecture/presentation?
  2. Which parts were confusing or weakly explained? What did I miss? What more would I need to know?
  3. What (from the content) do I agree with and what do I disagree with? Why? Support by arguments and your experiences.
  4. Can I see any connections with my student's or practical background? Any application areas?
  5. Do I have any reactions to discussion points raised by my colleagues?

These example questions are just for inspiration, creative reflections are welcome!

Oral Presentations

Students will work in teams. Each team will have to prepare a presentation of one topic from the list above. The team will meet the lecturer one week before their presentation to consult the details. The team is responsible for the whole course of presentation, involving demonstrations, discussions etc.

Group work & Colloquium

Students will be evaulated for their activity during the group work (Sept 29) and the final colloquium (Dec 8).

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